SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY

by

John Canivan, August 2003  
Sunny Future Press
    

All rights reserved. No part of this book or the accompanying CD-ROM  shows may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical without the express permission of the author.  On line forum support is available at www.JC-SolarHomes.com

          Special thanks are extended to my patient wife, Catricia, who helps clarify concepts and tolerates my chaotic desk.  Professor Dathatri, coordinator of the Solar Energy Department at the New York State University of Farmingdale, also deserves special thanks for his support and numerous suggestions.

Your learning will be greatly enhanced if you follow the book with the included 3 hour multimedia slide Solar Thermal Energy show. The 270 slides and the 180 voice files have been specially choreographed to shed light on the past present and future concepts of solar thermal energy. This full screen slide show experience will prepare you for the coming “Solar Age”. In addition to the Solar Thermal Energy CD-ROM you will also receive the SUN HEAT CD-ROM. More information about these CD-ROM shows are available from: Multi Media Shows on Solar Thermal Energy

 

This solar thermal energy study guide is designed to be used in conjunction with the STE multimedia interactive slide show. The best way to learn about solar thermal energy in the shortest period of time is to view the show with this book at your side, and work out the problems as they’re presented. When you feel like taking a break or when you need time to do a calculation hit the pause button. When you’re ready to move on hit the pause button again, and the program will resume.

 

To run the slide show effectively you’ll need to turn off your PC screen saver. Do this by going to CONTROL PANEL. Click on the DISPLAY icon. Under DISPLAY choose the screen saver tab. For your screen saver choose none. Now turn up the volume on your speakers and slide the CD-ROM into your CD driver.

You should be able to master all the material contained in this book and all the material on this slide show in a short time. The book and slide shows are copy right protected. It is illegal to copy or distribute either the book or the slide shows, but the information they contain is yours to keep forever and use to transform the world and bring us one step closer to a Solar Age of peace, tranquility and discovery.  Hope you can find the time to visit my website…  John Canivan     at       www.JC-SolarHomes.com

 

 

 

OVERVIEW

 

1.   Heat Gain demonstrates how energy available from        sunlight may be calculated and converted into a fuel oil equivalent. p4

 

2.   Heat Loss demonstrates how heat loss from a dwelling may be calculated. These calculations help determine how much fuel oil or solar energy would be needed to maintain a dwelling at a set temperature throughout the heating season. p12

 

3.   Heat Theory answers questions like: p16

a.                     What is heat?

b.                      What is temperature?

c.                      How is heat transferred?

d.                      How does a multi-tank heat storage system work?

 

4.   Solar Power explores the past present and future uses of sunlight used to run pumps and generators. p25

 

5.   Solar Home Heating explores the history of solar heating as well as some home designs based on the greenhouse concept. p30

 

6.   Solar Hot Water demonstrates: p34
a. History of solar hot water.
b. Solar collectors
c. Solar hot water systems

 

7.   Energy Independent Housing explores: p52
a. Hydronic heating
b. Massive heat storage vault details
c. Super insulation methods
d. Zoning
e. Integrated heating, electric and living systems
e. Overall design considerations

 

8.   Solar Thermal Roof is a futuristic solar thermal design concept that utilizes the entire surface area of a roof for heat gain. P65

 

9.   Solar Thermal Concepts clarifies the basic principles of solar thermal energy application. P89

 

10.               Answers to Questions p92

 ………………………………………………

 

 

 

 

HEAT GAIN

 

Heat gain from the sun varies from place to place and depends upon weather conditions time of the day and season of the year. On an hourly basis we will assume that one KWH is available to every square meter of direct sunlight unhampered by weather conditions. For local average daily radiant energy availability we will refer to the National Solar Radiation Maps.

 

In this chapter we will be calculating the annual solar radiant energy available for the Long Island area in fuel oil equivalents. December radiant energy will also be calculated. These calculations will be done for latitude tilt angle and latitude tilt angle + 15 degrees. To do these calculations we’ll need to convert KWH (kilowatt hour) energy into BTU energy. From this result fuel oil equivalents will be derived. You may refer to the following equivalents while working on heat gain problems.

 

ONE HOUR OF DIRECT SUNLIGHT     =              1 KWH

1 KWH                                                =        3,400 BTU’s

1 gallon #2 fuel oil                                =    150,000 BTU’s

1 square meter                                    =            10.6 sq ft

one 4X8 collector (aproximately)           =              3 m2

 

Let’s begin with a few questions?

 

1. What is a BTU?
2. How many BTUs are in a gallon of fuel oil?
3. What is the energy equivalent of one square meter’s worth of sunlight over the period of one hour in KWH?
4. What is the fuel oil equivalent of one hour of direct sunlight on one square meter?
5. What effect does collector position have on collector efficiency?
The average daily radiant energies derived from the National Solar Radiation Data maps have been calculated for your convenience. See how close these approximate values are to the values you derive for the Long Island area?

 

 

6. Use a National Solar Radiation Map to calculate the average annual solar energy available in KWH from one square meter of Long Island real estate at latitude tilt angle over the period of:
      A. a day =
4.5 KWH/day
      B. a year?
      C. Calculate the fuel oil equivalent per year?
     
HINT use annual latitude map

KWH/day       X              days in year             =      KWH/yr

KWH/yr          X              BTU’s/KWH              =      BTU/yr

BTU/yr           X              BTU/ BTU per gallon =    GAL/yr      

 

7. Use a National Solar Radiation Map to calculate the average annual solar energy available in KWH from one square meter of Long Island real estate at latitude tilt angle plus 15 degrees over the period of: 
      A. a day? =
4.3 KWH/day
      B. a year?
      C. Calculate the fuel oil equivalent per year?
     
HINT use annual latitude + 150 map

  8. Use a National Solar Radiation Map to calculate the average solar energy available during December in KWH from one square meter of Long Island real estate at latitude tilt angle over the period of:
      A. a day? =
2.5 KWH/ day
      B. a month?
      C. Calculate the fuel oil equivalent for the month of               December?
     
HINT use December latitude map

9. Use a National Solar Radiation Map to calculate the average solar energy available during December in KWH from one square meter of Long Island real estate at latitude tilt angle + 15 degrees over the period of:
      A. a day? =
2.8 KWH/day
      B. a month?
      C. Calculate the fuel oil equivalent for the month of               December?
     
HINT use December latitude + 150 map

10. What is the advantage of tilting a collector at a steep angle?

11. How is a greenhouse able to trap heat?

12. How much solar heat energy will be available for two 4X8 foot collectors in a year at latitude tilt angle?  Give answer in fuel oil equivalents. (HINT a 4X8 collector has a surface area of 3 m2

13. How much solar heat energy will be available for two 4X8 collectors at latitude tilt angle during the month of December?

14. How much heat energy will two 4X8 collectors harvest at latitude tilt angle + 15 degrees during the month of December?

15. Name two devices used to concentrate the radiant energy of the sun?

The solar heat gain of a system is always less than the available energy from the sun. Heat transfer efficiency will of course depend on collector efficiency and the heat exchange process within the storage vault.
      Heat gain from fossil fuel oil burners depends on the combustion process as well as the heat extraction system. Typical fossil fuel heating systems lose much of their heat during the combustion process of venting hot exhaust gasses. Heat gain efficiencies are important factors that must be considered for both fossil fuel and solar heating systems.  To simplify heat loss calculations we will assume an oil burner heat transfer efficiency of 100% although this number is usually much closer to 50%.... and so on ...

 

This book plus 2 CD-ROM multimedia collections may be purchased through PayPal... OR with personal check by contacting me: 

 

Solar Thermal Energy + STE CD-ROM + Oil Story CD_ROM    $ 50

An eBook version is also available without CD-ROMS

Other books are available from the Strawberry Fields Solar Book Store


                                       

 

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